You can't see the drain hole inside the fridge 'cause it's covered in ice - best bet is to let it thaw out, the outlet is that little rubber hose in the centre at the back of the fridge. Somethings clogging that up - once you have defrosted it completely you can clean out the tube with a piece of wire or something - then verify it's operation by pouring some water through the drain hole that is located under the fan
Defrost termination is controlled a little different in these units, has a thermister and fuse in the "control" harness that attaches to the evaporator - if the sensor is failing it could throw a wrench in the wheel
These are resettable, they are wired in series with the sensor and trip out during self clean. Located close to the area where the probe harness passes through the liner at back of oven. If you reset it, it may (likely) trip again during next clean - has been an issue, have placed thin washers under mtg screws and instructed user to move range out a few inches prior to cleaning. This mostly 'cause I hate callbacks
It has always been my experience that grooves made in shafts by lip seals render shaft surface unrepairable - it is likely that if you used the old spider, it would work fine for a period of time. I would replace the spider, but shudder to think of what that may cost
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As I recall, these washers can be slid out of the cabinet a bit - you remove the screws at the lower front that allow the front panel to be removed. The top can then be unfastened by a couple of srews and lifted up, you'll find the lid switch there (pic attached) - HOWEVER, the fuse is located on the side front of the inner cabinet where the wiring runs.
The load was ONE pair of jeans and one piece of underwear -
This could be at the root of your problem, too small a load such as this will simply ball up on one side of the tub and create a "catapult" effect, the motor only sees sharp thrusts of tourque and interprets it as an off balance situation, stops spinning and logs an error. Loads should be full loads of similar type materials